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Exact"s from the classics were required; mi"ng even one character or writing it in the wrong form meant failure, so candidates went to great lengths to bring hidden copies of these texts with them, sometimes written on their underwear.
4345, isbn CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list ( link ) Wolfgang Franke, The Reform and casino pacha kotor Abolition of the Traditional Chinese Examination System (Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, 1968 7071.Most of the candidates came from the numerically small but relatively wealthy land-owning scholar-official class.(1985 A dictionary of official titles in Imperial China /, Stanford University Press,. .London: University of California Press.Elite individuals all over China, even in the disadvantaged peripheral regions, had a chance at succeeding in the examinations and achieving the rewards and emoluments office brought.Berkshire Encyclopedia of China (PDF).A Note on the Authenticity and Ideology of Shih-chi 24, "The Book on Music" Norman Yoffee, George.17 The Ming established Neo-Confucian interpretations as the orthodoxy guidelines and created what the historian Benjamin Elman called a "single-minded and monocular political ideology" that "affected politically and socially how literati learning would be interpreted and used." The imperial civil service system adopted this rigid.97 Fairbank, 82 Yu, 58 Kracke, 254 "Chinese civil service".Wu's progressive accumulation of political power through enhancement of the examination system involved attaining the allegiance of previously under-represented regions, alleviating frustrations of the literati, and encouraging education in various locales so even people in the remote corners of the empire would work on their.93 There is a long history of debate on the usefulness of the procedure of testing the ability of the candidates to write poetry.5 Han dynasty edit Candidates for offices recommended by the prefect of prefecture were examined by the Ministry of Rites and then presented to the emperor.Although there were imperial exams as early as the.37 Also, Kublai was opposed to such a commitment to the Chinese language and to the Chinese scholars who were so adept at it, as well as its accompanying ideology: he wished to appoint his own people without relying on an apparatus inherited from.Examples include Wang Anshi, who proposed reforms to make the exams more practical, and Zhu Xi, whose interpretations of the Four Classics became the orthodox Neo-Confucianism which dominated later dynasties.Wu lavished favors on the newly graduated jinshi degree-holders, increasing the prestige associated with this path of attaining a government career, and clearly began a process of opening up opportunities to success for a wider population pool, including inhabitants of China's less neteller local bank deposit india prestigious southeast area.97 See also edit Bar exam Chinese classic texts Civil Service of the People's Republic of China Donglin Academy Education in the People's Republic of China Eight-legged essay, a literary form developed in association with examination requirements Four Books and Five Classics, Confucian works used.In theory, recommendations were based on a combination bingocams no deposit bonus code of reputation and ability but it's not certain how well this worked in practice.The shengyuan degree holders were give some tax exemptions from the general public.Nevertheless, the civil and military elements of government were in Chinese political theory sometimes compared to the two wheels of a chariot ; if either were neglected, government would not run smoothly.The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty.

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